TTS Module 16 - Piston Engine for EASA Part 66 for B1

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Total Training Support's Integrated Training System. We are sure you will need no other reference material to pass your EASA Part-66 exam in this Module.

These notes have been written by instructors of EASA Part-66 courses, specifically for practitioners of varying experience within the aircraft maintenance industry, and especially those who are self-studying to pass the EASA Part-66 exams.

They are specifically designed to meet the EASA Part-66 syllabus and to answer the questions being asked by the UK CAA in their examinations.

The EASA Part-66 syllabus for each sub-section is printed at the beginning of each of the chapters in these course notes and is used as the “Learning Objectives”.

We suggest that you take each chapter in-turn, read the text of the chapter a couple of times, if only to familiarise yourself with the location of the information contained within. Then, using your membership, attempt the questions within the respective sub-section, and continually refer back to these notes to read-up on the underpinning knowledge required to answer the respective question, and any similar question that you may encounter on your real Part-66 examination. Studying this way, with the help of the question practice and their explanations, you will be able to master the subject piece-by-piece, and become proficient in the subject matter, as well as proficient in answering the CAA style EASA part-66 multiple choice questions.

The course notes are written to suit Licence category 'B1' but also covers Licence category 'A'.

602 pages (in 2 volumes)



Module 16.1 Fundamentals

Development of Power

The Otto Engine

  • The 4-Stroke Cycle
  • Valve Timing
  • Ignition Timing
  • Valve Operation
  • Pre-Ignition

Two-Stroke Engine

Diesel Engines

  • 2-Stroke Diesel
  • 4-Stroke Diesel

Linear Measurements

Compression Ratio


  • Mechanical Efficiency
  • Thermal Efficiency
  • Volumetric Efficiency

Arrangement of Cylinders

Arrangement of Valves

Arrangement of Camshaft

Glossary of Piston Engine Terms

Module 16.2 Engine Performance

What is Power?

  • General
  • Horsepower Definitions
  • Horsepower Conversions

Measurement of Power

  • Definitions
  • Power Measuring Machines

Factors Affecting Power

  • Temperature and Density of Air
  • Humidity
  • Fuel Mixture
  • Detanation
  • Compression
  • Fuel Metering
  • Idle Mixture
  • The Induction Manifold
  • Operational Effect of Valve Clearance
  • Ignition System
  • Propeller Governor
  • Overlapping Phases of Engine Operation
  • Engine Power Troubleshooting

Module 16.3 Engine Construction

Constructional Arrangement

  • Internal Arrangements
  • Engine Type Classification
  • Engine Cylinder Numbering
  • External Component Arrangements


  • In-line Engines
  • Radial Engines


  • Nomenclature
  • Journals
  • Crank Pins
  • Crank Cheeks or Arms
  • Crankshaft Balancing
  • Crankshaft Arrangements


Connecting Rods

  • Function
  • The Plain Connecting Rod
  • The Fork and Blade Connecting Rod
  • The Master and Articulated Rod


  • General Arrangement
  • Cylinder Heads
  • Cylinder Barrels


  • General Assembly and Types
  • Piston Rings

Valves Mechanisms

  • Valves
  • Valve Gear

Propeller Reduction Gearboxes

  • Parallel Spur Gears
  • Epicyclic Reduction Gears
  • Compound Spur Epicyclic
  • Gear Train / Epicyclic

Power Take-Off Provision

Module 16.4 Engine Fuel Systems


Intake Icing

Carburettor Icing


  • Fuel Grade
  • Air/Fuel Ratio
  • Mixture

The Float Chamber Carburettor

  • Construction
  • Operation
  • Throttle Valve and Maine Jet
  • Slow Running, Idle and Cut Off
  • Pressure Balance Duct (PBD)
  • The Diffuser
  • The Air Bleed
  • Control of Mixture Ratios
  • Automatic Mixture Control
  • Economy
  • Power and Enrichment Jet
  • Acceleration
  • The Whole System

Fuel Injection Systems

Construction and Operating Principles

  • The Throttle Body
  • The Regulator
  • Operation
  • The Metering Section
  • The Discharge Nozzle
  • Mass Airflow

A Typical Pressure Injection Carburettor

  • Fuel Control Unit (FCU)
  • Manual Mixture Control
  • Auto Lean
  • Auto Rich
  • Power
  • Idle
  • The Regulator
  • The Throttle Body

Alternative Metering Systems

Bendix RSA Injection System

  • Airflow Section
  • Regulator Section
  • The Flow Divizer
  • Injection Nozzles
  • Automatic Mixture Control (AMC)

Teledyne Continental Injection System

  • General Layout
  • The Fuel Pump Assembly
  • The Fuel/Air Control Unit
  • Manifold Fuel Valve
  • The Injection Discharge Nozzle
  • Supercharged and Turbocharged Engines

Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC)



  • Computer controlled
  • Ignition
  • Fuel Injection
  • Vapour lock
  • Fuel savings

Typical FADEC Layout

  • ECU Architecture
  • Fail Safe Control
  • Maine Interfaces and Limits

Module 16.5 Starting and Ignition Systems

High Tension (HT) Ignition Systems

  • The Primary or Low Tension (LT) Circuit
  • The Secondary or High Tension (HT) Circuit
  • Ignition Harness
  • Operation of the Combined Circuits


  • Magneto Operation
  • Ignition Switches
  • The Contract Breaker (CB)
  • The Distributor
  • Magneto Venting
  • Magneto Speeds
  • The Four Pole Magnet
  • The Dual Magneto
  • The Rotating Armature Magneto
  • Magneto Mounting and Drives

Ignition Leads (HT)

  • Construction
  • Testing

Spark Plugs

  • Construction
  • Inspection and Servicing of Sparking Plugs
  • Storage
  • Plug Fitting
  • Ground Checking

Auxiliary Ignition Systems

  • Impulse Starters
  • Booster Coils

Ignition Timing

  • General
  • Engine Speed
  • Manifold Pressure
  • Mixture Strength
  • Automatic Timing Control
  • Magneto Timing (Bendix)
  • The "E" (Efficiency) Gap
  • Timing Magneto to Engine


  • Types of Starter
  • Manual Cranking Inertia Starter
  • Electrical Inertia Starters
  • Combination Inertia Starters
  • Direct Cranking Starters
  • Solenoid or Pre-engaged
  • Electric Starter Circuit
  • Bendix Drive
  • Starter Relay
  • Bonding/Earthing Straps
  • Troubleshooting and Maintenance

Module 16.6 Induction, Exhaust and Cooling Systems

Engine Exhaust Systems

Cylinder Cooling

  • Air Cooled Engines
  • Liquid Cooled Engines

Induction System

  • The Air Intake
  • Filters
  • The Induction Manifold


Module 16.7 Supercharging / Turbocharging


Aspirated Engines

Supercharged Engines

  • The Impeller and Diffuser
  • The Two Speed Supercharger
  • The Two Stage Supercharger

The Supercharger

  • The Roots Supercharger
  • The Vane Supercharger
  • The Centrifugal Supercharger
  • Boost and Manifold Air Pressure
  • System Layout
  • Power From Supercharging
  • Supercharger Control
  • Manifold Pressure Control
  • Variable Datum Control
  • Boost Reversal
  • Supercharger Drives
  • The Centrifugal Friction Clutch

The Turbocharger

  • The Waste Gate
  • The Waste Gate Actuator
  • The Absolute Pressure Controller
  • The Variable Pressure Controller
  • The Dual Unit Control System
  • The Density Controller
  • The Differential Pressure Controller
  • The Triple Unit Control System

Module 16.8 Lubricants and Fuel


Types of Lubrication

  • Boundary Lubrication
  • Hydrodynamic Lubrication
  • Elastrohydrodynamic Lubrication

Oil Viscosity

  • Determining the Oil Viscosity
  • The Effect of Temperature

Selection and Properties of Oil

  • Society of Automotive Engineeers (SAE)
  • Monograde Oil
  • Multigrade Oil
  • Straightgrade Oil
  • Extreme Pressure Additive (Oil Extreme Pressure - OEP)
  • Ashless Dispersant Additives
  • Detergent Additives
  • Use of Automotive Engine Oil

Condition Monitoring

  • Spectrographic oil Analysis Programme

Engine Oil Use

  • Protective Coating
  • Moisture Formation
  • Acids
  • Location
  • Oil and Filter Change



Grade, Octane and Lead

  • Calorific Value
  • Volatility
  • Anti-Knock Properties


  • Avgas 100
  • Avgas 100LL
  • Avgas 82 UL
  • Avgas Density
  • Some History of Avgas
  • Identification


  • General
  • Adverse Effects
  • Testing for Alcohol in Mogas


  • General
  • Bio Diesel
  • Cold Weather

Aviation Fuel - Qualities and Requirements

  • Anti-Knock Rating
  • Volatility
  • Vapour Lock
  • Oil Dilution
  • Corrosion
  • Performance Number
  • Mogas

Module 16.9 Lubricants Systems


  • Film Lubrication
  • Boundary Lubrication

Other Oil Functions

  • Cooling
  • Sealing
  • Cleaning

Wet Sump System

  • Crankcase Sump
  • Oil Pump
  • Pressure Relief Valve
  • Oil Filter
  • Oil Circuit
  • Pressure Sensing
  • Example: Lycoming Wet Sump System

Dry Sump System

Oil Tank

  • Engine Driven Pumps

Anti-Drain Valve

Oil Temperature Sensing

Oil Cooling

  • Oil Cooler
  • By Pass Flow
  • Non-Cooling Flow
  • Cooling Flow

Oil Filtration and Filter Assemblies

Oil Dilution Systems

  • Precautions When Oil Diluting
  • Period of Effectiveness

Pressure Control

  • Pressure Relief Valve
  • Pressure Regulator

Lubrication Supply - Oil Distribution

Crankshaft Sealing

Oil Indications

  • Low Oil Pressure
  • High Oil Consumption
  • High Oil Temperature

Module 16.10 Engine Indication Systems

Engine Indication Layout

Engine Speed (RPM)

  • Mechanical Tachometers
  • Mechanical Indicators
  • Electrical Tachometers
  • Tacho Generators
  • Indicators
  • Maintenance Practices


Pressure Measurement

  • Piston Type Gauges
  • Direct Reading Gauges
  • Bourdon Tube Instrument
  • Capsule Instrument
  • Transmitting Pressure Gauges
  • Electrical Transmitters

Manifold Pressure and Boost Pressure Gauges

  • Construction and Action
  • Fuel Trap
  • Testing Boost Gauges
  • Oil Pressure

Measurement of Temperature

  • Bimetallic Strip
  • Resistance Bulbs
  • Resistance Thermometers
  • Wheatstone Bridge Temperature Sensor
  • DC Ratiometer
  • Thermocouple Sensors
  • Piston Engine Ground Running Temperatures
  • Engine Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT)
  • Exhaust Gas Temperature
  • Oil and Carburettor Temperature

Fuel Pressure and Flow

  • Fuel Pressure Indicator
  • Fuel Plowmeter
  • Vane Type Fuel Flowmeter
  • Synchronous Fuel Flowmeter (Motor driven)
  • The Motorless Integrated Fuel Flow Transmitter
  • The Synchronous Integrated Fuel Flowmeter
  • Maintenance Practices

Module 16.11 Powerplant Installation

Engine Mounts

Engine Controls

  • Throttle Control
  • Propeller Controls
  • Mixture Control
  • Carburettor Heat

Control Systems

  • General Requirements
  • Push Pull Control Rods
  • Bowden Controls
  • Teleflex Controls

Engine Removal and Replacement

  • General
  • Reasons for Removal of Reciprocating Engines
  • Preparation of Reciprocating Engines for Installation
  • QECA Build-up of Radial Engines
  • Draining the Engine
  • Electrical Disconnects
  • Disconnection of Engine Controls
  • Disconnection of Lines
  • Other Disconnections
  • Hoisting the Engine

Engine Installation

  • Hoisting and Mounting the Engine for Installation
  • Connections and Adjustments

Preparation of Engine for Ground and Flight Testing

  • Pre-oiling
  • Fuel System Bleeding
  • Propeller Check

Check and Adjustments after Engine Run-Up and Operation

Removal and Installation of an Opposed-Type Engine

Typical Removal and Installation Procedure

  • Engine Removal
  • Engine Installation

Module 16.12 Engine Monitoring and Ground Operation

Ground Running

  • Ground Running Check
  • Ground Running Precautions
  • Pre-Start Checks
  • Engine Shut Down

Overhaul Periods

  • Private Category Aircraft
  • Public Transport and Aerial Work Category Aircraft
  • Engine Inspection Procedures for Extension to Overhaul Life
  • Crop Spraying Aircraft
  • Extension to Overhaul Periods
  • Overhaul Periods (Light Aircraft)

Engine Overhaul

  • Top Overhaul
  • Major Overhaul

General Overhaul Procedures

  • Disassembly
  • Inspection
  • Repair and Replacement

Cylinder Assembly Reconditioning

  • Cylinder Head
  • Cylinder Barrel
  • Valves and Valve Springs
  • Rocker Arms and Shafts
  • Piston and Piston Pin
  • Re-facing Valve Seats
  • Valve Reconditioning
  • Valve Lapping and Leak Testing
  • Piston Repairs

Crankshaft Inspection

  • Sludge Chambers

Connecting Rods

  • Visual Inspection
  • Checking Alignment

Block Testing of Reciprocating Engines

  • Block Test Purpose
  • Block-Test Requirements
  • Mobile Stand Testing of Reciprocating Engines
  • Block Test Instruments
  • Carburettor Air Temperature Indicator
  • Fuel Pressure Indicator
  • Fuel Flowmeter
  • Manifold Pressure Indicator
  • Oil Temperature Indicator
  • Oil Pressure Indicator
  • Tachometer Indicator
  • Cylinder Head Temperature Indicator
  • Torquemeter
  • Oil-Weighing System
  • Metering Differential Manometer
  • General Instrumentation

Reciprocating Engine Operation

  • General
  • Engine Instruments
  • Engine Staring
  • Engine Warm-Up
  • Ground Check
  • Propeller Pitch Check
  • Power Check
  • Ignition System Operational Check
  • Cruise Mixture Check
  • Idle Speed and Idle Mixture Cheecks
  • Two-Speed Supercharder Check
  • Acceleration and Deceleration Checks
  • Engine Stopping
  • Basic Engine Operating Principles
  • Backfiring
  • After-Firing

Cylinder Maintenance

  • Hydraulic Lock
  • Valve Blow-by
  • Cylinder Compression Tests
  • Direct Compression Tester
  • Differential Pressure Tester
  • Cylinder Replacement
  • Cylinder Removal
  • Cylinder Installation
  • Valve and Valve Mechanism
  • Valve Clearance
  • Valve Spring Replacement
  • Cold Cylinder Check

Module 16.13 Engine Storage and Preservation

Engine for Removal


  • Corrosion-Preventive Materials
  • Corrosion-Preventive Compounds
  • Dehydrating Agents
  • Corrosion-Preventive Treatment

Packing and Sealing

  • Recors
  • Fuel System Inhibiting
  • Blacks
  • Engine Shipping Containers

Inspection of Stored Engines

Removal from Storage

  • De-preservation of an Engine
  • Inspection and De-preservation of Accessories
  • Inspection and Replacement of Powerplant External Units and Systems


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TTS Module 16 - Piston Engine for EASA Part 66 for B1

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